Homo sapiens Protein: ID2
InnateDB Protein IDBP-27113.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol ID2
Protein Name inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein
Synonyms bHLHb26; GIG8; ID2A; ID2H;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000234091
InnateDB Gene IDBG-27111 (ID2)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Transcriptional regulator (lacking a basic DNA binding domain) which negatively regulates the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors by forming heterodimers and inhibiting their DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Implicated in regulating a variety of cellular processes, including cellular growth, senescence, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and neoplastic transformation. Inhibits skeletal muscle and cardiac myocyte differentiation. Regulates the circadian clock by repressing the transcriptional activator activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer. Restricts the CLOCK and ARNTL/BMAL1 localization to the cytoplasm. Plays a role in both the input and output pathways of the circadian clock: in the input component, is involved in modulating the magnitude of photic entrainment and in the output component, contributes to the regulation of a variety of liver clock-controlled genes involved in lipid metabolism. {ECO:0000269PubMed:20861012}.
Subcellular Localization Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269PubMed:20861012}. Nucleus {ECO:0000255PROSITE-ProRule:PRU00981, ECO:0000269PubMed:20861012}.
Disease Associations
Tissue Specificity Highly expressed in early fetal tissues, including those of the central nervous system.
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 49 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 13 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 49 [view]
Protein-Protein 49 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Predicted by orthology
Total 13 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0044325 ion channel binding
GO:0046983 protein dimerization activity
Biological Process
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0001656 metanephros development
GO:0001779 natural killer cell differentiation
GO:0002521 leukocyte differentiation
GO:0003149 membranous septum morphogenesis
GO:0003166 bundle of His development
GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development
GO:0007507 heart development
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0009649 entrainment of circadian clock
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression
GO:0010629 negative regulation of gene expression
GO:0014003 oligodendrocyte development
GO:0019216 regulation of lipid metabolic process
GO:0021772 olfactory bulb development
GO:0032922 circadian regulation of gene expression
GO:0033598 mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation
GO:0042752 regulation of circadian rhythm
GO:0043153 entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod
GO:0043353 enucleate erythrocyte differentiation
GO:0043392 negative regulation of DNA binding
GO:0043433 negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
GO:0045475 locomotor rhythm
GO:0045578 negative regulation of B cell differentiation
GO:0045600 positive regulation of fat cell differentiation
GO:0045648 positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation
GO:0045651 positive regulation of macrophage differentiation
GO:0045665 negative regulation of neuron differentiation
GO:0045668 negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation
GO:0045777 positive regulation of blood pressure
GO:0045787 positive regulation of cell cycle
GO:0045892 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0048468 cell development
GO:0048469 cell maturation
GO:0048541 Peyer's patch development
GO:0048557 embryonic digestive tract morphogenesis
GO:0048661 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation
GO:0048663 neuron fate commitment
GO:0048711 positive regulation of astrocyte differentiation
GO:0048715 negative regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation
GO:0060612 adipose tissue development
GO:0060749 mammary gland alveolus development
GO:0061030 epithelial cell differentiation involved in mammary gland alveolus development
GO:0061031 endodermal digestive tract morphogenesis
GO:0071158 positive regulation of cell cycle arrest
GO:0071285 cellular response to lithium ion
GO:0071931 positive regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle
GO:0090398 cellular senescence
GO:2000045 regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle
GO:2000178 negative regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation
Cellular Component
GO:0000785 chromatin
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005813 centrosome
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0043234 protein complex
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR011598 Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
PFAM PF00010
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt Q02363
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-Q02363
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 3398
UniGene Hs.665350
OMIM 600386
HPRD 02664
EMBL AC011747 AK311988 AY634687 BC030639 CH471053 D13891 M97796
GenPept AAA58681 AAH30639 AAV35470 AAY14810 BAA02990 BAG34927 EAX01018 EAX01019