Homo sapiens Protein: SNCA
InnateDB Protein IDBP-30079.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol SNCA
Protein Name synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)
Synonyms NACP; PARK1; PARK4; PD1;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000338345
InnateDB Gene IDBG-30077 (SNCA)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a decreased caspase-3 activation.
Subcellular Localization Cytoplasm. Membrane. Nucleus. Cell junction, synapse. Note=Membrane-bound in dopaminergic neurons.
Disease Associations Note=Genetic alterations of SNCA resulting in aberrant polymerization into fibrils, are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). SNCA fibrillar aggregates represent the major non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque, and a major component of Lewy body inclusions. They are also found within Lewy body (LB)-like intraneuronal inclusions, glial inclusions and axonal spheroids in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1.Parkinson disease 1 (PARK1) [MIM:168601]: A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features. {ECO:0000269PubMed:23427326, ECO:0000269PubMed:23457019, ECO:0000269PubMed:9197268, ECO:0000269PubMed:9462735}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.Parkinson disease 4 (PARK4) [MIM:605543]: A complex neurodegenerative disorder with manifestations ranging from typical Parkinson disease to dementia with Lewy bodies. Clinical features include parkinsonian symptoms (resting tremor, rigidity, postural instability and bradykinesia), dementia, diffuse Lewy body pathology, autonomic dysfunction, hallucinations and paranoia. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.Dementia Lewy body (DLB) [MIM:127750]: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mental impairment leading to dementia, parkinsonism, fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Brainstem or cortical intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies) are the only essential pathologic features. Patients may also have hippocampal and neocortical senile plaques, sometimes in sufficient number to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease. {ECO:0000269PubMed:14755719}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Tissue Specificity Expressed principally in brain but is also expressed in low concentrations in all tissues examined except in liver. Concentrated in presynaptic nerve terminals.
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 384 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 13 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 384 [view]
Protein-Protein 380 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
DNA-DNA 4 [view]
Predicted by orthology
Total 13 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding
GO:0005507 copper ion binding
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0005543 phospholipid binding
GO:0008017 microtubule binding
GO:0008198 ferrous iron binding
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity
GO:0019894 kinesin binding
GO:0019899 enzyme binding
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding
GO:0030544 Hsp70 protein binding
GO:0042393 histone binding
GO:0042802 identical protein binding
GO:0043014 alpha-tubulin binding
GO:0043027 cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process
GO:0043274 phospholipase binding
GO:0045502 dynein binding
GO:0047485 protein N-terminus binding
GO:0048156 tau protein binding
GO:0048487 beta-tubulin binding
GO:0050544 arachidonic acid binding
GO:0051219 phosphoprotein binding
Biological Process
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation
GO:0001921 positive regulation of receptor recycling
GO:0001933 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation
GO:0001956 positive regulation of neurotransmitter secretion
GO:0001963 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process
GO:0006638 neutral lipid metabolic process
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process
GO:0006919 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process
GO:0007006 mitochondrial membrane organization
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission
GO:0007568 aging
GO:0008344 adult locomotory behavior
GO:0010040 response to iron(II) ion
GO:0010517 regulation of phospholipase activity
GO:0010642 negative regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway
GO:0014048 regulation of glutamate secretion
GO:0014059 regulation of dopamine secretion
GO:0031115 negative regulation of microtubule polymerization
GO:0031623 receptor internalization
GO:0031648 protein destabilization
GO:0032026 response to magnesium ion
GO:0032410 negative regulation of transporter activity
GO:0032496 response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0032769 negative regulation of monooxygenase activity
GO:0033138 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation
GO:0034341 response to interferon-gamma
GO:0034599 cellular response to oxidative stress
GO:0035067 negative regulation of histone acetylation
GO:0040012 regulation of locomotion
GO:0042220 response to cocaine
GO:0042416 dopamine biosynthetic process
GO:0042417 dopamine metabolic process
GO:0042493 response to drug
GO:0042775 mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled electron transport
GO:0043030 regulation of macrophage activation
GO:0043066 negative regulation of apoptotic process
GO:0043154 negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process
GO:0043206 extracellular fibril organization
GO:0043524 negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process
GO:0044344 cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus
GO:0045087 innate immune response (InnateDB)
GO:0045807 positive regulation of endocytosis
GO:0045920 negative regulation of exocytosis
GO:0045963 negative regulation of dopamine metabolic process
GO:0046928 regulation of neurotransmitter secretion
GO:0048148 behavioral response to cocaine
GO:0048168 regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity
GO:0048169 regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity
GO:0048488 synaptic vesicle endocytosis
GO:0048489 synaptic vesicle transport
GO:0050806 positive regulation of synaptic transmission
GO:0050808 synapse organization
GO:0050812 regulation of acyl-CoA biosynthetic process
GO:0051281 positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol
GO:0051583 dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission
GO:0051585 negative regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission
GO:0051612 negative regulation of serotonin uptake
GO:0051622 negative regulation of norepinephrine uptake
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process
GO:0060079 regulation of excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential
GO:0060291 long-term synaptic potentiation
GO:0060732 positive regulation of inositol phosphate biosynthetic process
GO:0061024 membrane organization
GO:0070495 negative regulation of thrombin receptor signaling pathway
GO:0070555 response to interleukin-1
GO:0071280 cellular response to copper ion
GO:0071872 cellular response to epinephrine stimulus
GO:0071902 positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity
GO:1901214 regulation of neuron death
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005640 nuclear outer membrane
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005739 mitochondrion
GO:0005764 lysosome
GO:0005791 rough endoplasmic reticulum
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0005840 ribosome
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0005938 cell cortex
GO:0008021 synaptic vesicle
GO:0015629 actin cytoskeleton
GO:0016234 inclusion body
GO:0030054 cell junction
GO:0030424 axon
GO:0030426 growth cone
GO:0030659 cytoplasmic vesicle membrane
GO:0031092 platelet alpha granule membrane
GO:0043195 terminal bouton
GO:0043205 fibril
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle
GO:0043679 axon terminus
GO:0045202 synapse
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR001058 Synuclein
IPR002460 Alpha-synuclein
IPR002462 Gamma-synuclein
PFAM PF01387
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P37840
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P37840
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 6622
UniGene Hs.604559
RefSeq NP_001139527
OMIM 163890
HPRD 01227
EMBL AC093759 AC097478 AC108208 AF163864 AK290169 AY049786 BC013293 BC108275 CH471057 CR457058 D31839 DQ088379 HQ830267 HQ830268 HQ830269 L08850 L36674 L36675 U46897 U46898 U46899 U46901
GenPept AAA16117 AAA98487 AAA98493 AAC02114 AAG30302 AAG30303 AAH13293 AAI08276 AAL15443 AAY40956 AAY88735 AEG20815 AEG20816 AEG20817 BAA06625 BAF82858 CAG33339 EAX06036