Homo sapiens Protein: RHOA
InnateDB Protein IDBP-377198.4
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol RHOA
Protein Name ras homolog gene family, member A
Synonyms ARH12; ARHA; RHO12; RHOH12;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000400175
InnateDB Gene IDBG-34732 (RHOA)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Regulates a signal transduction pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Involved in a microtubule-dependent signal that is required for the myosin contractile ring formation during cell cycle cytokinesis. Plays an essential role in cleavage furrow formation. Required for the apical junction formation of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. Serves as a target for the yopT cysteine peptidase from Yersinia pestis, vector of the plague, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which causes gastrointestinal disorders. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. May be an activator of PLCE1. Activated by ARHGEF2, which promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. The MEMO1-RHOA- DIAPH1 signaling pathway plays an important role in ERBB2- dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It controls the localization of APC and CLASP2 to the cell membrane, via the regulation of GSK3B activity. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of the MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization. {ECO:0000269PubMed:12900402, ECO:0000269PubMed:16103226, ECO:0000269PubMed:16236794, ECO:0000269PubMed:19934221, ECO:0000269PubMed:20937854, ECO:0000269PubMed:20974804, ECO:0000269PubMed:8910519, ECO:0000269PubMed:9121475}.
Subcellular Localization Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cleavage furrow. Cytoplasm, cell cortex. Midbody. Cell projection, lamellipodium {ECO:0000250}. Note=Localized to cell-cell contacts in calcium-treated keratinocytes (By similarity). Translocates to the equatorial region before furrow formation in a ECT2-dependent manner. Localizes to the equatorial cell cortex (at the site of the presumptive furrow) in early anaphase in a activated form and in a myosin- and actin-independent manner. {ECO:0000250}.
Disease Associations
Tissue Specificity
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 171 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 12 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 171 [view]
Protein-Protein 169 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
DNA-DNA 2 [view]
Predicted by orthology
Total 12 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0003924 GTPase activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0005525 GTP binding
GO:0017022 myosin binding
Biological Process
GO:0006184 GTP catabolic process
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007264 small GTPase mediated signal transduction
GO:0007266 Rho protein signal transduction
GO:0007411 axon guidance
GO:0007596 blood coagulation
GO:0015031 protein transport
GO:0016032 viral process
GO:0021762 substantia nigra development
GO:0030036 actin cytoskeleton organization
GO:0030168 platelet activation
GO:0030334 regulation of cell migration
GO:0032467 positive regulation of cytokinesis
GO:0033688 regulation of osteoblast proliferation
GO:0036089 cleavage furrow formation
GO:0042346 positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus
GO:0043123 positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling
GO:0043297 apical junction assembly
GO:0043931 ossification involved in bone maturation
GO:0045666 positive regulation of neuron differentiation
GO:0048011 neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway
GO:0048015 phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling
GO:0050770 regulation of axonogenesis
GO:0050771 negative regulation of axonogenesis
GO:0050772 positive regulation of axonogenesis
GO:0051056 regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction
GO:0051496 positive regulation of stress fiber assembly
GO:0061383 trabecula morphogenesis
GO:0090307 spindle assembly involved in mitosis
Cellular Component
GO:0005622 intracellular
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0005938 cell cortex
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0030027 lamellipodium
GO:0030054 cell junction
GO:0030496 midbody
GO:0032154 cleavage furrow
GO:0043296 apical junction complex
GO:0070062 extracellular vesicular exosome
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR000795 Elongation factor, GTP-binding domain
IPR001806 Small GTPase superfamily
IPR003578 Small GTPase superfamily, Rho type
IPR003579 Small GTPase superfamily, Rab type
IPR005225 Small GTP-binding protein domain
IPR006689 Small GTPase superfamily, ARF/SAR type
IPR013684 Mitochondrial Rho-like
IPR020849 Small GTPase superfamily, Ras type
IPR027417 P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase
PFAM PF00009
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P61586
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P61586
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 387
UniGene Hs.247077
RefSeq NP_001655
OMIM 165390
HPRD 01323
EMBL AC104452 AC121247 AC137114 AF498970 AK222556 AK296654 BC000946 BC001360 BC005976 BT019870 BX647063 CH471055 L09159 L25080 M83094 X05026
GenPept AAA50612 AAA67539 AAC33178 AAH00946 AAH01360 AAH05976 AAM21117 AAV38673 BAD96276 BAG59251 CAA28690 CAE46190 EAW64978 EAW64979 EAW64980