Homo sapiens Protein: CCL2
InnateDB Protein IDBP-40506.5
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol CCL2
Protein Name chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2
Synonyms GDCF-2; HC11; HSMCR30; MCAF; MCP-1; MCP1; SCYA2; SMC-CF;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000225831
InnateDB Gene IDBG-40504 (CCL2)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes and basophils but not neutrophils or eosinophils. Augments monocyte anti-tumor activity. Has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or atherosclerosis. May be involved in the recruitment of monocytes into the arterial wall during the disease process of atherosclerosis.
Subcellular Localization Secreted.
Disease Associations
Tissue Specificity
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 46 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 2 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 46 [view]
Protein-Protein 32 [view]
Protein-DNA 12 [view]
Protein-RNA 1 [view]
DNA-DNA 1 [view]
Predicted by orthology
Total 2 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity
GO:0005102 receptor binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008009 chemokine activity
GO:0008201 heparin binding
GO:0031727 CCR2 chemokine receptor binding
Biological Process
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade
GO:0001525 angiogenesis
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia
GO:0001912 positive regulation of leukocyte mediated cytotoxicity
GO:0001938 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation
GO:0002523 leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response
GO:0002548 monocyte chemotaxis
GO:0002687 positive regulation of leukocyte migration
GO:0002693 positive regulation of cellular extravasation
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation
GO:0006874 cellular calcium ion homeostasis
GO:0006935 chemotaxis
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0006959 humoral immune response
GO:0006987 activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization
GO:0007155 cell adhesion
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007187 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger
GO:0007259 JAK-STAT cascade
GO:0007568 aging
GO:0008347 glial cell migration
GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape
GO:0009408 response to heat
GO:0009611 response to wounding
GO:0009612 response to mechanical stimulus
GO:0009617 response to bacterium
GO:0009887 organ morphogenesis
GO:0010332 response to gamma radiation
GO:0010574 regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production
GO:0010759 positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis
GO:0014823 response to activity
GO:0016525 negative regulation of angiogenesis
GO:0019079 viral genome replication
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0019725 cellular homeostasis
GO:0022409 positive regulation of cell-cell adhesion
GO:0030593 neutrophil chemotaxis
GO:0030968 endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response
GO:0031100 organ regeneration
GO:0031663 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0032496 response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0032570 response to progesterone
GO:0032760 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production
GO:0032869 cellular response to insulin stimulus
GO:0032967 positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process
GO:0033552 response to vitamin B3
GO:0034351 negative regulation of glial cell apoptotic process
GO:0035684 helper T cell extravasation
GO:0035690 cellular response to drug
GO:0036006 cellular response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus
GO:0036120 cellular response to platelet-derived growth factor stimulus
GO:0042493 response to drug
GO:0043200 response to amino acid
GO:0043491 protein kinase B signaling
GO:0043524 negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process
GO:0043615 astrocyte cell migration
GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process
GO:0044344 cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus
GO:0045087 innate immune response (InnateDB)
GO:0045471 response to ethanol
GO:0045785 positive regulation of cell adhesion
GO:0046677 response to antibiotic
GO:0048010 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway
GO:0048246 macrophage chemotaxis
GO:0048247 lymphocyte chemotaxis
GO:0050806 positive regulation of synaptic transmission
GO:0050870 positive regulation of T cell activation
GO:0051384 response to glucocorticoid
GO:0051770 positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process
GO:0060135 maternal process involved in female pregnancy
GO:0060137 maternal process involved in parturition
GO:0070098 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0071222 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0071300 cellular response to retinoic acid
GO:0071318 cellular response to ATP
GO:0071346 cellular response to interferon-gamma
GO:0071347 cellular response to interleukin-1
GO:0071354 cellular response to interleukin-6
GO:0071356 cellular response to tumor necrosis factor
GO:0071402 cellular response to lipoprotein particle stimulus
GO:0071403 cellular response to high density lipoprotein particle stimulus
GO:0071407 cellular response to organic cyclic compound
GO:0071549 cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus
GO:0090026 positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis
GO:0090265 positive regulation of immune complex clearance by monocytes and macrophages
GO:0090280 positive regulation of calcium ion import
GO:2000427 positive regulation of apoptotic cell clearance
GO:2000502 negative regulation of natural killer cell chemotaxis
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005791 rough endoplasmic reticulum
GO:0030139 endocytic vesicle
GO:0030425 dendrite
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body
GO:0043204 perikaryon
GO:0043679 axon terminus
GO:0044299 C-fiber
GO:0045202 synapse
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR001811 Chemokine interleukin-8-like domain
PFAM PF00048
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P13500
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 6347
UniGene Hs.595481
RefSeq NP_002973
OMIM 158105
HPRD 01149
EMBL A17786 AF519531 AK311960 AY357296 BC009716 BT007329 CH471147 D26087 M24545 M28223 M28224 M28225 M28226 M30816 M31625 M31626 M37719 S69738 S71513 X14768 Y18933
GenPept AAA18102 AAA18164 AAA36330 AAA60308 AAA60309 AAB20651 AAB29926 AAH09716 AAM54046 AAP35993 AAQ75526 BAA05080 BAG34900 CAA01352 CAA32876 CAC14049 EAW80212