Homo sapiens Gene: GREM1
InnateDB Gene IDBG-5193.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol GREM1
Gene Name gremlin 1
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Gene ENSG00000166923
Encoded Proteins
gremlin 1
gremlin 1
gremlin 1, DAN family BMP antagonist
Protein Structure
Useful resources Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen
Entrez Gene
Summary This gene encodes a member of the BMP (bone morphogenic protein) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists contain cystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The CAN (cerberus and dan) subfamily of BMP antagonists, to which this gene belongs, is characterized by a C-terminal cystine knot with an eight-membered ring. The antagonistic effect of the secreted glycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to its direct binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this gene may play a role in regulating organogenesis, body patterning, and tissue differentiation. In mouse, this protein has been shown to relay the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signal from the polarizing region to the apical ectodermal ridge during limb bud outgrowth. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Gene Information
Type Protein coding
Genomic Location Chromosome 15:32717974-32745107
Strand Forward strand
Band q13.3
ENST00000560677 ENSP00000453387
ENST00000560830 ENSP00000453141
ENST00000622074 ENSP00000478319
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 4 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
Experimentally validated
Total 4 [view]
Protein-Protein 4 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0016015 morphogen activity
GO:0030297 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity
GO:0036122 BMP binding
GO:0043184 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding
GO:0048018 receptor agonist activity
Biological Process
GO:0000902 cell morphogenesis
GO:0001525 angiogenesis
GO:0001658 branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis
GO:0002042 cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis
GO:0002092 positive regulation of receptor internalization
GO:0002689 negative regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis
GO:0003257 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in myocardial precursor cell differentiation
GO:0003337 mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in metanephros morphogenesis
GO:0006915 apoptotic process
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007171 activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0009887 organ morphogenesis
GO:0009954 proximal/distal pattern formation
GO:0010717 regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition
GO:0030199 collagen fibril organization
GO:0030308 negative regulation of cell growth
GO:0030326 embryonic limb morphogenesis
GO:0030502 negative regulation of bone mineralization
GO:0030514 negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway
GO:0033689 negative regulation of osteoblast proliferation
GO:0042346 positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus
GO:0043542 endothelial cell migration
GO:0045766 positive regulation of angiogenesis
GO:0045892 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0046851 negative regulation of bone remodeling
GO:0048263 determination of dorsal identity
GO:0051092 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity
GO:0051893 regulation of focal adhesion assembly
GO:0051973 positive regulation of telomerase activity
GO:0060394 negative regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation
GO:0060676 ureteric bud formation
GO:0061098 positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity
GO:0090027 negative regulation of monocyte chemotaxis
GO:0090090 negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway
GO:0090190 positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis
GO:0090191 negative regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis
GO:0090291 negative regulation of osteoclast proliferation
GO:1900086 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation
GO:1900155 negative regulation of bone trabecula formation
GO:1900158 negative regulation of bone mineralization involved in bone maturation
GO:2000273 positive regulation of receptor activity
GO:2000727 positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation
Cellular Component
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0009986 cell surface
Mus musculus
Bos taurus
Gene ID
Gene Order
SSD Ortholog
Ortholog supports species divergence
Not yet available
SSD Ortholog
Ortholog supports species divergence
BMP receptor signaling
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 26585
RefSeq NM_001191322 NM_013372 XM_005254301 XM_006725542 NM_001191323
OMIM 603054
CCDS CCDS10029 CCDS53927
EMBL AB032372 AF045800 AF110137 AF154054 AK095890 AK312265 AY232290 BC069525 BC093778 BC101611 CH471125 DQ100070
GenPept AAC39725 AAF06677 AAG23891 AAH69525 AAH93778 AAI01612 AAP69985 AAZ29612 BAA84462 BAC04643 BAG35196 EAW92268
RNA Seq Atlas 26585