Homo sapiens Protein: RAD51C
InnateDB Protein IDBP-61456.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol RAD51C
Protein Name RAD51 homolog C (S. cerevisiae)
Synonyms BROVCA3; FANCO; R51H3; RAD51L2;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000336701
InnateDB Gene IDBG-61454 (RAD51C)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Essential for the homologous recombination (HR) pathway of DNA repair. Involved in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway of double-stranded DNA breaks arising during DNA replication or induced by DNA-damaging agents. Part of the RAD21 paralog protein complexes BCDX2 and CX3 which act at different stages of the BRCA1-BRCA2-dependent HR pathway. Upon DNA damage, BCDX2 seems to act downstream of BRCA2 recruitment and upstream of RAD51 recruitment; CX3 seems to act downstream of RAD51 recruitment; both complexes bind predominantly to the intersection of the four duplex arms of the Holliday junction (HJ) and to junction of replication forks. The BCDX2 complex was originally reported to bind single-stranded DNA, single-stranded gaps in duplex DNA and specifically to nicks in duplex DNA. The BCDX2 subcomplex RAD51B:RAD51C exhibits single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity suggesting an involvement in early stages of the HR pathway. Involved in RAD51 foci formation in response to DNA damage suggesting an involvement in early stages of HR probably in the invasion step. Has an early function in DNA repair in facilitating phosphorylation of the checkpoint kinase CHEK2 and thereby transduction of the damage signal, leading to cell cycle arrest and HR activation. Participates in branch migration and HJ resolution and thus is important for processing HR intermediates late in the DNA repair process; the function may be linked to the CX3 complex. Part of a PALB2-scaffolded HR complex containing BRCA2 and which is thought to play a role in DNA repair by HR. Protects RAD51 from ubiquitin-mediated degradation that is enhanced following DNA damage. Plays a role in regulating mitochondrial DNA copy number under conditions of oxidative stress in the presence of RAD51 and XRCC3. Contributes to DNA cross-link resistance, sister chromatid cohesion and genomic stability. Involved in maintaining centrosome number in mitosis. {ECO:0000269PubMed:14716019, ECO:0000269PubMed:16215984, ECO:0000269PubMed:16395335, ECO:0000269PubMed:19451272, ECO:0000269PubMed:19783859, ECO:0000269PubMed:20413593, ECO:0000269PubMed:23108668, ECO:0000269PubMed:23149936}.
Subcellular Localization Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Mitochondrion. Note=DNA damage induces an increase in nuclear levels. Accumulates in DNA damage induced nuclear foci or RAD51C foci which is formed during the S or G2 phase of cell cycle. Accumulation at DNA lesions requires the presence of NBN/NBS1, ATM and RPA.
Disease Associations Fanconi anemia complementation group O (FANCO) [MIM:613390]: A disorder affecting all bone marrow elements and resulting in anemia, leukopenia and thrombopenia. It is associated with cardiac, renal and limb malformations, dermal pigmentary changes, and a predisposition to the development of malignancies. At the cellular level it is associated with hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, chromosomal instability (increased chromosome breakage) and defective DNA repair. {ECO:0000269PubMed:20400963}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.Breast-ovarian cancer, familial, 3 (BROVCA3) [MIM:613399]: A condition associated with familial predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries. Characteristic features in affected families are an early age of onset of breast cancer (often before age 50), increased chance of bilateral cancers (cancer that develop in both breasts, or both ovaries, independently), frequent occurrence of breast cancer among men, increased incidence of tumors of other specific organs, such as the prostate. {ECO:0000269PubMed:20400964, ECO:0000269PubMed:21990120}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Tissue Specificity Expressed in a variety of tissues, with highest expression in testis, heart muscle, spleen and prostate.
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 29 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
Experimentally validated
Total 29 [view]
Protein-Protein 29 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding
GO:0000400 four-way junction DNA binding
GO:0003677 DNA binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0005524 ATP binding
GO:0008094 DNA-dependent ATPase activity
GO:0008821 crossover junction endodeoxyribonuclease activity
Biological Process
GO:0000724 double-strand break repair via homologous recombination
GO:0000737 DNA catabolic process, endonucleolytic
GO:0006200 ATP catabolic process
GO:0006259 DNA metabolic process
GO:0006281 DNA repair
GO:0006310 DNA recombination
GO:0007062 sister chromatid cohesion
GO:0007066 female meiosis sister chromatid cohesion
GO:0007131 reciprocal meiotic recombination
GO:0007141 male meiosis I
GO:0007283 spermatogenesis
GO:0007596 blood coagulation
GO:0010971 positive regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle
Cellular Component
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm
GO:0005657 replication fork
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005739 mitochondrion
GO:0033063 Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2 complex
GO:0033065 Rad51C-XRCC3 complex
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm
GO:0048476 Holliday junction resolvase complex
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR010995 DNA repair Rad51/transcription factor NusA, alpha-helical
IPR013632 DNA recombination and repair protein Rad51, C-terminal
IPR014774 Circadian clock protein KaiC/DNA repair protein RadA
IPR016467 DNA recombination and repair protein, RecA-like
IPR020588 DNA recombination and repair protein RecA-like, ATP-binding domain
IPR027417 P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase
PFAM PF08423
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt O43502
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-O43502
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 5889
UniGene Hs.412587
RefSeq NP_478123
OMIM 602774
HPRD 04143
EMBL AC011195 AC025521 AF029669 AF029670 AK290487 AY623112 BC093930 BC101485 BC107753 BT007339 CH471109
GenPept AAC39604 AAC39605 AAH93930 AAI01486 AAI07754 AAP36003 AAT38108 BAF83176 EAW94430 EAW94432