Homo sapiens Gene: S100A9
Summary
InnateDB Gene IDBG-102644.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol S100A9
Gene Name S100 calcium binding protein A9
Synonyms 60B8AG; CAGB; CFAG; CGLB; L1AG; LIAG; MAC387; MIF; MRP14; NIF; P14;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Gene ENSG00000163220
Encoded Proteins
S100 calcium binding protein A9
Protein Structure
Useful resources Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen
InnateDB Annotation
Summary
S100A9 is an intracellular calcium-binding protein that promotes neutrophil/monocyte recruitment at inflamed tissues by enhancing attachment to endothelial cells.
S100A9 is a myeloid-related protein that rapidly modulates macrophage nitric oxide production during innate immune response.
S100A9 (calgranulin B) and S100A8 (calgranulin A) form an antimicrobial heterodimeric complex known as calprotectin. Bacterial flagellin induces the upregulation of S100A9/S100A8 heterodimer via a TLR5-dependent mechanism in epidermal keratinocytes.
S100A9 forms a complex with S100A8 and the complex is the site of interplay between extracellular Ca(2+) entry and intra-phagosomal reactive oxygen species production. S100A8 :: S100A9 acts as Ca(2+) sensor in phagosomal ROS production.
S100A9-deficient murine neutrophils exhibited a reduce secretion of cytokines in response to TLR4 stimulation. In contrast, S100A9-deficient dendritic cells showed an exacerbated release of cytokines after TLR stimulation. S100A9 has no effect on the inflammatory status of macrophages. (Demonstrated in murine model)
S100A9 is strongly upregulated in neutrophils upon bacterial infection, and sequesters zinc as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. Salmonella typhimurium overcomes this defence mechanism by expressing a high affinity zinc transporter. (Demonstrated in mice)
S100A9 forms a heterodimer with S100A8 and is a key player in protective innate immunity during Klebsiella pneumonia infection.
S100A8::S100A9 heterodimer sequesters Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) to starve bacteria of these essential nutrients.
InnateDB Annotation from Orthologs
Summary
[Mus musculus] S100a9 forms a complex with S100a8 and the complex is the site of interplay between extracellular Ca(2+) entry and intra-phagosomal reactive oxygen species production. S100a8 :: S100a9 acts as Ca(2+) sensor in phagosomal ROS production.
[Mus musculus] S100a9-deficient murine neutrophils exhibited a reduce secretion of cytokines in response to Tlr4 stimulation. In contrast, S100a9-deficient dendritic cells showed an exacerbated release of cytokines after TLR stimulation. S100a9 has no effect on the inflammatory status of macrophages.
[Mus musculus] S100a9 is strongly upregulated in neutrophils upon bacterial infection, and sequesters zinc as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. Salmonella typhimurium overcomes this defence mechanism by expressing a high affinity zinc transporter.
[Mus musculus] S100A9 forms a heterodimer with S100A8 and is a key player in protective innate immunity during Klebsiella pneumonia infection.
[Mus musculus] S100a8/S100a9 are proinflammatory proteins that activate natural killer cells via Ager signalling.
Entrez Gene
Summary The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Gene Information
Type Protein coding
Genomic Location Chromosome 1:153357854-153361027
Strand Forward strand
Band q21.3
Transcripts
ENST00000368738 ENSP00000357727
Interactions
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 97 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
Experimentally validated
Total 97 [view]
Protein-Protein 96 [view]
Protein-DNA 1 [view]
Protein-RNA 0
DNA-DNA 0
RNA-RNA 0
DNA-RNA 0
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008017 microtubule binding
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding
GO:0016209 antioxidant activity
GO:0035662 Toll-like receptor 4 binding
GO:0050544 arachidonic acid binding
GO:0050786 RAGE receptor binding
Biological Process
GO:0001816 cytokine production
GO:0002523 leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response
GO:0002544 chronic inflammatory response
GO:0006914 autophagy
GO:0006919 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling
GO:0010043 response to zinc ion
GO:0030307 positive regulation of cell growth
GO:0030593 neutrophil chemotaxis
GO:0030595 leukocyte chemotaxis
GO:0031532 actin cytoskeleton reorganization
GO:0032119 sequestering of zinc ion
GO:0032496 response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0032602 chemokine production
GO:0042742 defense response to bacterium
GO:0045087 innate immune response (InnateDB)
GO:0045113 regulation of integrin biosynthetic process
GO:0045471 response to ethanol
GO:0050729 positive regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0050832 defense response to fungus
GO:0051092 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity
GO:0051493 regulation of cytoskeleton organization
GO:0070488 neutrophil aggregation
GO:2001244 positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0070062 extracellular vesicular exosome
Orthologs
Species
Mus musculus
Bos taurus
Gene ID
Gene Order
Method
Confidence
Comments
SSD Ortholog
Ortholog supports species divergence
Not yet available
SSD Ortholog
Ortholog supports species divergence
Pathways
NETPATH
REACTOME
KEGG
INOH
PID BIOCARTA
PID NCI
Endogenous TLR signaling
Cross-References
SwissProt P06702
TrEMBL
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 6280
UniGene
RefSeq NM_002965
HUGO HGNC:10499
OMIM 123886
CCDS CCDS1036
HPRD 00472
IMGT
EMBL AF237581 AF237582 AL591704 BC047681 CH471121 CR542207 CR542224 M21064 M26311 X06233
GenPept AAA36326 AAA68480 AAF62536 AAF62537 AAH47681 CAA29579 CAG47003 CAG47020 CAI19494 EAW53333 EAW53334
RNA Seq Atlas 6280