Homo sapiens Gene: IL18
InnateDB Gene IDBG-71390.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol IL18
Gene Name interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor)
Synonyms IGIF; IL-18; IL-1g; IL1F4;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Gene ENSG00000150782
Encoded Proteins
interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor)
interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor)
interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor)
Protein Structure
Useful resources Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen
InnateDB Annotation
IL18 and IL1B are important pro-inflammatory cytokines that activates monocytes, macropages, and neutrophils, as well as induce the Th1 and Th17 adaptive cellular responses.
IL18 secreted by inflammatory monocytes is critical for the differentiation of memory CD8(+) T and NK lymphocytes into antimicrobial effector cells. (Demonstrated in mice)
Primary γδ T cells provide an early source of IFNG during dengue virus (DV) infection and target DV-infected cells. Monocytes also participate as accessory cells that sense DV infection and amplify the cellular immune response in an IL18-dependent manner.
InnateDB Annotation from Orthologs
[Mus musculus] Il18 secreted by inflammatory monocytes is critical for the differentiation of CD8(+) T and NK lymphocytes into antimicrobial effector cells.
[Mus musculus] Both Nlrp3 and Nlrp1a are important regulators of Toxoplasma proliferation and Il18 signaling is required to mediate host resistance to acute toxoplasmosis.
[Mus musculus] Flagellin induces Tlr5-dependent Il22 production and Nlrc4-dependent Il18 production to promote a protective gene expression program in intestinal epithelial cells and elimination of rotavirus-infected cells.
[Mus musculus] Activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome is detrimental during leishmaniasis. Mice lacking the inflammasome components Nlrp3, Pycard, Casp1 exhibit defective Il1b and Il18 production at the infection site and are resistant to cutaneous Leishmania major infection.
[Mus musculus] Il22 augments the expression of Il18 mRNA and inactive precursor protein (proIL-18) in intestinal epithelial cells after Toxoplasma gondii or Citrobacter rodentium infection and maintains the homeostatic amount of proIL-18 in the ileum.
[Mus musculus] Microbiota-associated metabolites modulate Nlrp6 inflammasome signalling, epithelial Il18 secretion, and anti-microbial pathways.
[Mus musculus] Colitis severity is controlled at the level of Il18 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells.
Entrez Gene
Summary The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine that augments natural killer cell activity in spleen cells, and stimulates interferon gamma production in T-helper type I cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Gene Information
Type Protein coding
Genomic Location Chromosome 11:112143251-112164117
Strand Reverse strand
Band q23.1
ENST00000280357 ENSP00000280357
ENST00000524595 ENSP00000434561
ENST00000528832 ENSP00000434161
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 18 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 4 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 18 [view]
Protein-Protein 18 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Predicted by orthology
Total 4 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
Biological Process
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade
GO:0001525 angiogenesis
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression
GO:0030101 natural killer cell activation
GO:0030155 regulation of cell adhesion
GO:0030431 sleep
GO:0031663 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0032725 positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production
GO:0032729 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production
GO:0032740 positive regulation of interleukin-17 production
GO:0032819 positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation
GO:0034105 positive regulation of tissue remodeling
GO:0042033 chemokine biosynthetic process
GO:0042088 T-helper 1 type immune response
GO:0042092 type 2 immune response
GO:0042094 interleukin-2 biosynthetic process
GO:0042095 interferon-gamma biosynthetic process
GO:0042104 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation
GO:0042231 interleukin-13 biosynthetic process
GO:0042253 granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor biosynthetic process
GO:0042346 positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus
GO:0045087 innate immune response (InnateDB)
GO:0050729 positive regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0051142 positive regulation of NK T cell proliferation
GO:0071407 cellular response to organic cyclic compound
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0070062 extracellular vesicular exosome
Mus musculus
Bos taurus
Gene ID
Gene Order
SSD Ortholog
Ortholog supports species divergence
Not yet available
SSD Ortholog
Ortholog supports species divergence
Cytokine Signaling in Immune system pathway
Interleukin-1 processing pathway
Immune System pathway
Signaling by Interleukins pathway
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway
NOD-like receptor signaling pathway pathway
Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway pathway
African trypanosomiasis pathway
Malaria pathway
GPCR signaling pathway
JAK STAT pathway and regulation pathway
Ras-independent pathway in nk cell-mediated cytotoxicity [Biocarta view]
Cellular roles of Anthrax toxin
IL27-mediated signaling events
IL12-mediated signaling events
IL12 signaling mediated by STAT4
IL23-mediated signaling events
SwissProt Q14116
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 3606
UniGene Hs.83077
RefSeq NM_001243211 NM_001562
OMIM 600953
CCDS CCDS44731 CCDS58180
HPRD 02976
EMBL AF077611 AJ295724 AP002007 AP002884 AY044641 AY266351 BC007007 BC007461 CH471065 CR541973 CR542001 D49950 U90434
GenPept AAB50010 AAC27787 AAH07007 AAH07461 AAK95950 AAP92112 BAA08706 CAC01436 CAG46771 CAG46798 EAW67184
RNA Seq Atlas 3606