Homo sapiens Protein: CXCL12
InnateDB Protein IDBP-238824.7
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol CXCL12
Protein Name chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12
Synonyms IRH; PBSF; SCYB12; SDF1; TLSF; TPAR1;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000379141
InnateDB Gene IDBG-71595 (CXCL12)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Chemoattractant active on T-lymphocytes, monocytes, but not neutrophils. Activates the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 to induce a rapid and transient rise in the level of intracellular calcium ions and chemotaxis. Also binds to atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3, which activates the beta-arrestin pathway and acts as a scavenger receptor for SDF-1. SDF-1-beta(3-72) and SDF-1- alpha(3-67) show a reduced chemotactic activity. Binding to cell surface proteoglycans seems to inhibit formation of SDF-1-alpha(3- 67) and thus to preserve activity on local sites. Acts as a positive regulator of monocyte migration and a negative regulator of monocyte adhesion via the LYN kinase. Stimulates migration of monocytes and T-lymphocytes through its receptors, CXCR4 and ACKR3, and decreases monocyte adherence to surfaces coated with ICAM-1, a ligand for beta-2 integrins. SDF1A/CXCR4 signaling axis inhibits beta-2 integrin LFA-1 mediated adhesion of monocytes to ICAM-1 through LYN kinase. Inhibits CXCR4-mediated infection by T- cell line-adapted HIV-1. Plays a protective role after myocardial infarction. Induces down-regulation and internalization of ACKR3 expressed in various cells. Has several critical functions during embryonic development; required for B-cell lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis in bone marrow and heart ventricular septum formation. {ECO:0000269PubMed:11069075, ECO:0000269PubMed:11859124, ECO:0000269PubMed:16107333, ECO:0000269PubMed:18802065, ECO:0000269PubMed:19255243, ECO:0000269PubMed:8752281}.
Subcellular Localization Secreted.
Disease Associations
Tissue Specificity Isoform Alpha and isoform Beta are ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels detected in liver, pancreas and spleen. Isoform Gamma is mainly expressed in heart, with weak expression detected in several other tissues. Isoform Delta, isoform Epsilon and isoform Theta have highest expression levels in pancreas, with lower levels detected in heart, kidney, liver and spleen. {ECO:0000269PubMed:16626895}.
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 15 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 2 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 15 [view]
Protein-Protein 15 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Predicted by orthology
Total 2 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0005102 receptor binding
GO:0008009 chemokine activity
GO:0008083 growth factor activity
GO:0042379 chemokine receptor binding
GO:0045236 CXCR chemokine receptor binding
Biological Process
GO:0006874 cellular calcium ion homeostasis
GO:0006935 chemotaxis
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0007155 cell adhesion
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0008015 blood circulation
GO:0008064 regulation of actin polymerization or depolymerization
GO:0009615 response to virus
GO:0045785 positive regulation of cell adhesion
GO:0060326 cell chemotaxis
GO:0070098 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0090026 positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis
GO:0090280 positive regulation of calcium ion import
GO:1902230 negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage
GO:2000107 negative regulation of leukocyte apoptotic process
GO:2000406 positive regulation of T cell migration
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0070062 extracellular vesicular exosome
Protein Structure and Domains
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P48061
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P48061
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 6387
UniGene Hs.617446
OMIM 600835
HPRD 02904
EMBL AK292628 AK311814 AL137026 AU120056 AY644456 AY802782 AY874118 BC039893 CH471160 CR450283 DQ345517 DQ345518 DQ345519 DQ345520 L36033 L36034 U16752 U19495
GenPept AAA97434 AAB39332 AAB39333 AAB40516 AAH39893 AAT76437 AAV49999 AAW82036 ABC69270 ABC69271 ABC69272 ABC69273 BAF85317 BAG34757 CAC10202 CAC10203 CAG29279 EAW86619