Homo sapiens Protein: MIF
InnateDB Protein IDBP-2495.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol MIF
Protein Name macrophage migration inhibitory factor (glycosylation-inhibiting factor)
Synonyms GIF; GLIF; MMIF;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000215754
InnateDB Gene IDBG-401910 (MIF)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti- inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity. {ECO:0000269PubMed:15908412, ECO:0000269PubMed:17443469, ECO:0000269PubMed:23776208}.
Subcellular Localization Secreted. Cytoplasm. Note=Does not have a cleavable signal sequence and is secreted via a specialized, non- classical pathway. Secreted by macrophages upon stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or by M.tuberculosis antigens.
Disease Associations Rheumatoid arthritis systemic juvenile (RASJ) [MIM:604302]: An inflammatory articular disorder with systemic- onset beginning before the age of 16. It represents a subgroup of juvenile arthritis associated with severe extraarticular features and occasionally fatal complications. During active phases of the disorder, patients display a typical daily spiking fever, an evanescent macular rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, serositis, myalgia and arthritis. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Tissue Specificity
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 29 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 1 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 29 [view]
Protein-Protein 29 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Predicted by orthology
Total 1 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0004167 dopachrome isomerase activity
GO:0005102 receptor binding
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005126 cytokine receptor binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0016853 isomerase activity
GO:0042056 chemoattractant activity
GO:0050178 phenylpyruvate tautomerase activity
Biological Process
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
GO:0002906 negative regulation of mature B cell apoptotic process
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007569 cell aging
GO:0008283 cell proliferation
GO:0010629 negative regulation of gene expression
GO:0010739 positive regulation of protein kinase A signaling
GO:0019752 carboxylic acid metabolic process
GO:0030330 DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator
GO:0030890 positive regulation of B cell proliferation
GO:0031666 positive regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0032269 negative regulation of cellular protein metabolic process
GO:0033033 negative regulation of myeloid cell apoptotic process
GO:0033138 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation
GO:0042127 regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0042327 positive regulation of phosphorylation
GO:0043030 regulation of macrophage activation
GO:0043066 negative regulation of apoptotic process
GO:0043406 positive regulation of MAP kinase activity
GO:0043518 negative regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator
GO:0045087 innate immune response (InnateDB)
GO:0048146 positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation
GO:0050715 positive regulation of cytokine secretion
GO:0050731 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation
GO:0050918 positive chemotaxis
GO:0061078 positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion involved in immune response
GO:0061081 positive regulation of myeloid leukocyte cytokine production involved in immune response
GO:0070207 protein homotrimerization
GO:0070374 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
GO:0071157 negative regulation of cell cycle arrest
GO:0090238 positive regulation of arachidonic acid secretion
GO:0090344 negative regulation of cell aging
GO:1902166 negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage by p53 class mediator
GO:2000343 positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0009986 cell surface
GO:0070062 extracellular vesicular exosome
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR001398 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor
IPR014347 Tautomerase/MIF superfamily
PFAM PF01187
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P14174
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P14174
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 4282
RefSeq NP_002406
OMIM 153620
HPRD 01091
EMBL AF469046 AK311929 BC000447 BC007676 BC008914 BC013976 BC022414 BC053376 BT007148 CH471095 CR407644 CR456520 CR541651 DQ307455 EF611126 JQ846015 L10612 L19686 M25639 M95775 Z23063
GenPept AAA21814 AAA35892 AAA36179 AAA36315 AAH00447 AAH07676 AAH08914 AAH13976 AAH22414 AAH53376 AAL78635 AAP35812 ABB96245 ABQ95571 AFM09726 BAG34870 CAA80598 CAG28572 CAG30406 CAG46452 EAW59620