Homo sapiens Protein: IRF1
InnateDB Protein IDBP-293081.4
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol IRF1
Protein Name interferon regulatory factor 1
Synonyms IRF-1; MAR;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000384406
InnateDB Gene IDBG-42125 (IRF1)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Transcriptional regulator which displays a remarkable functional diversity in the regulation of cellular responses. These include the regulation of IFN and IFN-inducible genes, host response to viral and bacterial infections, regulation of many genes expressed during hematopoiesis, inflammation, immune responses and cell proliferation and differentiation, regulation of the cell cycle and induction of growth arrest and programmed cell death following DNA damage. Stimulates both innate and acquired immune responses through the activation of specific target genes and can act as a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating target genes by binding to an interferon- stimulated response element (ISRE) in their promoters. Its target genes for transcriptional activation activity include: genes involved in anti-viral response, such as IFN-alpha/beta, DDX58/RIG-I, TNFSF10/TRAIL, OAS1/2, PIAS1/GBP, EIF2AK2/PKR and RSAD2/viperin; antibacterial response, such as NOS2/INOS; anti- proliferative response, such as p53/TP53, LOX and CDKN1A; apoptosis, such as BBC3/PUMA, CASP1, CASP7 and CASP8; immune response, such as IL7, IL12A/B and IL15, PTGS2/COX2 and CYBB; DNA damage responses and DNA repair, such as POLQ/POLH; MHC class I expression, such as TAP1, PSMB9/LMP2, PSME1/PA28A, PSME2/PA28B and B2M and MHC class II expression, such as CIITA. Represses genes involved in anti-proliferative response, such as BIRC5/survivin, CCNB1, CCNE1, CDK1, CDK2 and CDK4 and in immune response, such as FOXP3, IL4, ANXA2 and TLR4. Stimulates p53/TP53-dependent transcription through enhanced recruitment of EP300 leading to increased acetylation of p53/TP53. Plays an important role in immune response directly affecting NK maturation and activity, macrophage production of IL12, Th1 development and maturation of CD8+ T-cells. Also implicated in the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells and in the suppression of regulatory T (Treg) cells development. Acts as a tumor suppressor and plays a role not only in antagonism of tumor cell growth but also in stimulating an immune response against tumor cells. {ECO:0000269PubMed:15226432, ECO:0000269PubMed:15509808, ECO:0000269PubMed:17516545, ECO:0000269PubMed:17942705, ECO:0000269PubMed:18084608, ECO:0000269PubMed:18497060, ECO:0000269PubMed:18641303, ECO:0000269PubMed:19404407, ECO:0000269PubMed:19851330, ECO:0000269PubMed:21389130, ECO:0000269PubMed:22200613, ECO:0000269PubMed:22367195}.
Subcellular Localization Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=MYD88-associated IRF1 migrates into the nucleus more efficiently than non-MYD88- associated IRF1.
Disease Associations Gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]: A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease. {ECO:0000269PubMed:10395927, ECO:0000269PubMed:9679752}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Tissue Specificity
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 206 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 45 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 206 [view]
Protein-Protein 70 [view]
Protein-DNA 135 [view]
Protein-RNA 0
RNA-RNA 1 [view]
Predicted by orthology
Total 45 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0000975 regulatory region DNA binding
GO:0000978 RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0003677 DNA binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
Biological Process
GO:0002819 regulation of adaptive immune response
GO:0006366 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0006915 apoptotic process
GO:0007050 cell cycle arrest
GO:0007596 blood coagulation
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0032481 positive regulation of type I interferon production
GO:0032728 positive regulation of interferon-beta production
GO:0034124 regulation of MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
GO:0035458 cellular response to interferon-beta
GO:0045087 innate immune response (InnateDB)
GO:0045088 regulation of innate immune response
GO:0045590 negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation
GO:0045892 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0051607 defense response to virus
GO:0051726 regulation of cell cycle
GO:0060333 interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0060337 type I interferon signaling pathway
GO:0071260 cellular response to mechanical stimulus
GO:2000564 regulation of CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell proliferation
Cellular Component
GO:0000790 nuclear chromatin
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005829 cytosol
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR001346 Interferon regulatory factor DNA-binding domain
IPR017431 Interferon regulatory factor-1/2
PFAM PF00605
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P10914
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P10914
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 3659
UniGene Hs.672951
OMIM 147575
HPRD 00961
EMBL AC003959 AC116366 AK314025 BC009483 BT019755 BT019756 CH471062 CR541713 DQ789232 L05072 X14454
GenPept AAA36043 AAB93488 AAH09483 AAV38560 AAV38561 ABH05670 BAG36735 CAA32624 CAG46514 EAW62332