Homo sapiens Protein: GHRL
InnateDB Protein IDBP-362929.4
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol GHRL
Protein Name ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000403725
InnateDB Gene IDBG-18011 (GHRL)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation.Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular Localization Secreted.
Disease Associations
Tissue Specificity Highest level in stomach. All forms are found in serum as well. Other tissues compensate for the loss of ghrelin synthesis in the stomach following gastrectomy. {ECO:0000269PubMed:12414809}.
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 6 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
Experimentally validated
Total 6 [view]
Protein-Protein 6 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding
GO:0005179 hormone activity
GO:0016608 growth hormone-releasing hormone activity
GO:0030296 protein tyrosine kinase activator activity
GO:0031768 ghrelin receptor binding
Biological Process
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity
GO:0001937 negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007204 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration
GO:0008154 actin polymerization or depolymerization
GO:0008343 adult feeding behavior
GO:0009725 response to hormone
GO:0009755 hormone-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0016358 dendrite development
GO:0016525 negative regulation of angiogenesis
GO:0030252 growth hormone secretion
GO:0032024 positive regulation of insulin secretion
GO:0032100 positive regulation of appetite
GO:0032691 negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production
GO:0040018 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth
GO:0042127 regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0042322 negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep
GO:0042536 negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process
GO:0043066 negative regulation of apoptotic process
GO:0043400 cortisol secretion
GO:0043627 response to estrogen
GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process
GO:0045409 negative regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process
GO:0046010 positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep
GO:0046697 decidualization
GO:0050728 negative regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0051216 cartilage development
GO:0051461 positive regulation of corticotropin secretion
GO:0051464 positive regulation of cortisol secretion
GO:0051965 positive regulation of synapse assembly
GO:0060124 positive regulation of growth hormone secretion
GO:0060399 positive regulation of growth hormone receptor signaling pathway
GO:0061098 positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen
GO:0030424 axon
GO:0034774 secretory granule lumen
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR005441 Preproghrelin peptide
IPR006737 Motilin/ghrelin-associated peptide
PFAM PF04643
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt Q9UBU3
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-Q9UBU3
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 51738
UniGene Hs.590080
RefSeq NP_001128418
OMIM 605353
HPRD 05638
EMBL AB029434 AB035700 AC022384 AF296558 AJ252278 AY184207 AY359053 BC025791 CH471055 EF549569 EF549571 EF549572 EF549573 EF549574 EF549575 EU072083 EU072084 EU072085 EU072086 EU072087
GenPept AAG10300 AAH25791 AAO27351 AAQ89412 ABQ40357 ABQ40358 ABQ40359 ABQ40360 ABQ40361 ABQ40362 ABV55186 ABV55187 ABV55188 ABV55189 ABV55190 BAA89371 BAB19045 CAB65733 EAW64074 EAW64075