Homo sapiens Gene: GHRL
InnateDB Gene IDBG-18011.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol GHRL
Gene Name ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Gene ENSG00000157017
Encoded Proteins
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
Protein Structure
Useful resources Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen
Entrez Gene
Summary This gene encodes ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein, which generates ghrelin and obestatin. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and is involved in regulating growth hormone release. Obestatin was initially reported to be an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39 and was involved in satiety and decreased food intake; however, these findings are controversial. Recent reports show that obestatin is involved in inhibiting thirst and anxiety, improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell proliferation, and increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes. Alternative promoters and alternative splicing result in multiple transcript variants, some of which encode different protein isoforms and some of which do not encode a protein but may regulate the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. In addition, antisense transcripts for this gene have been identified and may also function in regulation of the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Gene Information
Type Protein coding
Genomic Location Chromosome 3:10285675-10292947
Strand Reverse strand
Band p25.3
ENST00000335542 ENSP00000335074
ENST00000287656 ENSP00000287656
ENST00000430179 ENSP00000399922
ENST00000446937 ENSP00000394923
ENST00000437422 ENSP00000416768
ENST00000449238 ENSP00000388145
ENST00000439975 ENSP00000403725
ENST00000422159 ENSP00000405464
ENST00000429122 ENSP00000414819
ENST00000457360 ENSP00000391406
ENST00000425479 ENSP00000405031
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 6 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
Experimentally validated
Total 6 [view]
Protein-Protein 6 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding
GO:0005179 hormone activity
GO:0016608 growth hormone-releasing hormone activity
GO:0030296 protein tyrosine kinase activator activity
GO:0031768 ghrelin receptor binding
Biological Process
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity
GO:0001696 gastric acid secretion
GO:0001937 negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007204 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration
GO:0008154 actin polymerization or depolymerization
GO:0008343 adult feeding behavior
GO:0009725 response to hormone
GO:0009755 hormone-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0016358 dendrite development
GO:0016525 negative regulation of angiogenesis
GO:0030252 growth hormone secretion
GO:0032024 positive regulation of insulin secretion
GO:0032095 regulation of response to food
GO:0032097 positive regulation of response to food
GO:0032100 positive regulation of appetite
GO:0032691 negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production
GO:0040013 negative regulation of locomotion
GO:0040018 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth
GO:0042127 regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0042322 negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep
GO:0042536 negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process
GO:0043066 negative regulation of apoptotic process
GO:0043400 cortisol secretion
GO:0043627 response to estrogen
GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process
GO:0045409 negative regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process
GO:0046010 positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep
GO:0046676 negative regulation of insulin secretion
GO:0046697 decidualization
GO:0050728 negative regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0051216 cartilage development
GO:0051461 positive regulation of corticotropin secretion
GO:0051464 positive regulation of cortisol secretion
GO:0051965 positive regulation of synapse assembly
GO:0060079 regulation of excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential
GO:0060124 positive regulation of growth hormone secretion
GO:0060399 positive regulation of growth hormone receptor signaling pathway
GO:0061098 positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen
GO:0030424 axon
GO:0034774 secretory granule lumen
Mus musculus
Bos taurus
Gene ID
Gene Order
Not yet available
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene
UniGene Hs.590080
RefSeq NM_001134941 NM_001134944 NM_001134945 NM_001134946 NM_016362
CCDS CCDS33700 CCDS46747 CCDS46748 CCDS46749 CCDS46750
HPRD 05638
RNA Seq Atlas