Homo sapiens Protein: LCAT
InnateDB Protein IDBP-37739.5
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol LCAT
Protein Name lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000264005
InnateDB Gene IDBG-242762 (LCAT)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Central enzyme in the extracellular metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. Synthesized mainly in the liver and secreted into plasma where it converts cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines (lecithins) to cholesteryl esters and lysophosphatidylcholines on the surface of high and low density lipoproteins (HDLs and LDLs). The cholesterol ester is then transported back to the liver. Has a preference for plasma 16:0-18:2 or 18:O-18:2 phosphatidylcholines. Also produced in the brain by primary astrocytes, and esterifies free cholesterol on nascent APOE-containing lipoproteins secreted from glia and influences cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) APOE- and APOA1 levels. Together with APOE and the cholesterol transporter ABCA1, plays a key role in the maturation of glial-derived, nascent lipoproteins. Required for remodeling high-density lipoprotein particles into their spherical forms. {ECO:0000269PubMed:10722751}.
Subcellular Localization Secreted {ECO:0000269PubMed:19065001}. Note=Secreted into blood plasma. Produced in astrocytes and secreted into cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).
Disease Associations Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (LCATD) [MIM:245900]: A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism characterized by inadequate esterification of plasmatic cholesterol. Two clinical forms are recognized: complete LCAT deficiency and fish- eye disease. LCATD is generally referred to the complete form which is associated with absence of both alpha and beta LCAT activities resulting in esterification anomalies involving both HDL (alpha-LCAT activity) and LDL (beta-LCAT activity). It causes a typical triad of diffuse corneal opacities, target cell hemolytic anemia, and proteinuria with renal failure. {ECO:0000269PubMed:11423760, ECO:0000269PubMed:12957688, ECO:0000269PubMed:15994445, ECO:0000269PubMed:16051254, ECO:0000269PubMed:16216249, ECO:0000269PubMed:1681161, ECO:0000269PubMed:1859405, ECO:0000269PubMed:2370048, ECO:0000269PubMed:7607641, ECO:0000269PubMed:7711728, ECO:0000269PubMed:8318557, ECO:0000269PubMed:8432868, ECO:0000269PubMed:8807342, ECO:0000269PubMed:9007616, ECO:0000269PubMed:9741700}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.Fish-eye disease (FED) [MIM:136120]: A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism due to partial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency that affects only alpha-LCAT activity. FED is characterized by low plasma HDL and corneal opacities due to accumulation of cholesterol deposits in the cornea ('fish- eye'). {ECO:0000269PubMed:1516702, ECO:0000269PubMed:1571050, ECO:0000269PubMed:15994445, ECO:0000269PubMed:1737840, ECO:0000269PubMed:21901787, ECO:0000269PubMed:8620346, ECO:0000269PubMed:9261271}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Tissue Specificity Expressed mainly in brain, liver and testes. Secreted into plasma and cerebral spinal fluid. Expressed in Hep- G2 cell line. {ECO:0000269PubMed:10222237, ECO:0000269PubMed:3797244}.
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 7 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
Experimentally validated
Total 7 [view]
Protein-Protein 7 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0004607 phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008374 O-acyltransferase activity
GO:0034186 apolipoprotein A-I binding
Biological Process
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process
GO:0006656 phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process
GO:0008203 cholesterol metabolic process
GO:0030301 cholesterol transport
GO:0034372 very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling
GO:0034375 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling
GO:0034435 cholesterol esterification
GO:0042157 lipoprotein metabolic process
GO:0042158 lipoprotein biosynthetic process
GO:0042632 cholesterol homeostasis
GO:0043691 reverse cholesterol transport
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process
GO:0090107 regulation of high-density lipoprotein particle assembly
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0034364 high-density lipoprotein particle
GO:0070062 extracellular vesicular exosome
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR003386 Lecithin:cholesterol/phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase
IPR029058 Alpha/Beta hydrolase fold
PFAM PF02450
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P04180
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P04180
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 3931
UniGene Hs.593769
RefSeq NP_000220
OMIM 606967
HPRD 06098
EMBL AC040162 AY422210 BC014781 BT009748 CH471092 M12625 M17959 M26268 X04981 X06537
GenPept AAA59498 AAA59499 AAA59500 AAH14781 AAP88750 AAR03499 CAA28651 CAB56610 EAW83190