Homo sapiens Protein: IL12B
InnateDB Protein IDBP-55895.5
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol IL12B
Protein Name interleukin 12B (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40)
Synonyms CLMF; CLMF2; IL-12B; IMD28; IMD29; NKSF; NKSF2;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000231228
InnateDB Gene IDBG-55893 (IL12B)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Cytokine that can act as a growth factor for activated T and NK cells, enhance the lytic activity of NK/lymphokine- activated killer cells, and stimulate the production of IFN-gamma by resting PBMC. {ECO:0000269PubMed:11114383}.Associates with IL23A to form the IL-23 interleukin, a heterodimeric cytokine which functions in innate and adaptive immunity. IL-23 may constitute with IL-17 an acute response to infection in peripheral tissues. IL-23 binds to a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of IL12RB1 and IL23R, activates the Jak- Stat signaling cascade, stimulates memory rather than naive T- cells and promotes production of proinflammatory cytokines. IL-23 induces autoimmune inflammation and thus may be responsible for autoimmune inflammatory diseases and may be important for tumorigenesis. {ECO:0000269PubMed:11114383}.
Subcellular Localization Secreted.
Disease Associations Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) [MIM:209950]: This rare condition confers predisposition to illness caused by moderately virulent mycobacterial species, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and environmental non- tuberculous mycobacteria, and by the more virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Other microorganisms rarely cause severe clinical disease in individuals with susceptibility to mycobacterial infections, with the exception of Salmonella which infects less than 50% of these individuals. The pathogenic mechanism underlying MSMD is the impairment of interferon-gamma mediated immunity, whose severity determines the clinical outcome. Some patients die of overwhelming mycobacterial disease with lepromatous-like lesions in early childhood, whereas others develop, later in life, disseminated but curable infections with tuberculoid granulomas. MSMD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance. {ECO:0000269PubMed:11753820, ECO:0000269PubMed:9854038}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.Psoriasis 11 (PSORS11) [MIM:612599]: A common, chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with multifactorial etiology. It is characterized by red, scaly plaques usually found on the scalp, elbows and knees. These lesions are caused by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis and epidermis. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Tissue Specificity
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 35 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 19 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 36 [view]
Protein-Protein 17 [view]
Protein-DNA 19 [view]
Protein-RNA 0
Predicted by orthology
Total 19 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0004896 cytokine receptor activity
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005126 cytokine receptor binding
GO:0005143 interleukin-12 receptor binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008083 growth factor activity
GO:0042164 interleukin-12 alpha subunit binding
GO:0042802 identical protein binding
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity
GO:0045519 interleukin-23 receptor binding
GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity
Biological Process
GO:0001916 positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity
GO:0002230 positive regulation of defense response to virus by host
GO:0002323 natural killer cell activation involved in immune response
GO:0002827 positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response
GO:0002860 positive regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target
GO:0002862 negative regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus
GO:0007050 cell cycle arrest
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway
GO:0010224 response to UV-B
GO:0010535 positive regulation of activation of JAK2 kinase activity
GO:0016477 cell migration
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0019233 sensory perception of pain
GO:0019953 sexual reproduction
GO:0030101 natural killer cell activation
GO:0032693 negative regulation of interleukin-10 production
GO:0032700 negative regulation of interleukin-17 production
GO:0032725 positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production
GO:0032729 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production
GO:0032733 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production
GO:0032735 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production
GO:0032740 positive regulation of interleukin-17 production
GO:0032760 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production
GO:0032816 positive regulation of natural killer cell activation
GO:0032819 positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation
GO:0032946 positive regulation of mononuclear cell proliferation
GO:0034105 positive regulation of tissue remodeling
GO:0034393 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process
GO:0042035 regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process
GO:0042088 T-helper 1 type immune response
GO:0042093 T-helper cell differentiation
GO:0042095 interferon-gamma biosynthetic process
GO:0042102 positive regulation of T cell proliferation
GO:0042104 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation
GO:0042346 positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus
GO:0042510 regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat1 protein
GO:0042517 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 protein
GO:0042520 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat4 protein
GO:0042523 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein
GO:0042832 defense response to protozoan
GO:0043382 positive regulation of memory T cell differentiation
GO:0044130 negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host
GO:0045078 positive regulation of interferon-gamma biosynthetic process
GO:0045087 innate immune response (InnateDB)
GO:0045672 positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation
GO:0045785 positive regulation of cell adhesion
GO:0048662 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation
GO:0050671 positive regulation of lymphocyte proliferation
GO:0050729 positive regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0050829 defense response to Gram-negative bacterium
GO:0051135 positive regulation of NK T cell activation
GO:0051142 positive regulation of NK T cell proliferation
GO:0051607 defense response to virus
GO:0071222 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0071346 cellular response to interferon-gamma
GO:2000318 positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response
GO:2000330 positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment
Cellular Component
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0043514 interleukin-12 complex
GO:0070743 interleukin-23 complex
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR003598 Immunoglobulin subtype 2
IPR003961 Fibronectin, type III
IPR007110 Immunoglobulin-like domain
IPR015528 Interleukin-12 beta
IPR019482 Interleukin-12 beta, central domain
PFAM PF00041
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P29460
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P29460
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 3593
UniGene Hs.674
RefSeq NP_002178
OMIM 161561
HPRD 01194
EMBL AF180563 AF512686 AY008847 AY046592 AY046593 BC067498 BC067499 BC067500 BC067501 BC067502 BC074723 EF173865 M65272 M65290
GenPept AAA35695 AAA59938 AAD56386 AAG32620 AAH67498 AAH67499 AAH67500 AAH67501 AAH67502 AAH74723 AAL05890 AAL05891 AAM34792 ABM53138