Homo sapiens Gene: IL12B
InnateDB Gene IDBG-55893.5
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol IL12B
Gene Name interleukin 12B (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40)
Synonyms CLMF; CLMF2; IL-12B; IMD28; IMD29; NKSF; NKSF2;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Gene ENSG00000113302
Encoded Proteins
interleukin 12B (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40)
Protein Structure
Useful resources Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen
InnateDB Annotation
IL12B production in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation is regulated by the tyrosine phosphatase activity of PTPN6 and this is a novel mechanism for host regulation of IL12, a cytokine important in both innate and adaptive immunity.
IL12, consisting of IL12A and IL12B subunits, initiates local antitumor immunity by stimulating lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells bearing the natural cytotoxicity receptor NCR1 (NKp46).
IL12, consisting of IL12A and IL12B subunits, induces IL2RA to form high-affinity IL2 receptors on natural killer cells in response to mouse cytomegalovirus infection. (Demonstrated in mouse)
Macrophages cultured with bile acids produce lower levels of IL12 and display an anti-inflammatory phenotype characterized by an increased ratio of IL10 to IL12
IFN gamma creates a primed chromatin environment in macrophages to augment TLR-induced IL12B transcription
InnateDB Annotation from Orthologs
[Mus musculus] Il12, consisting of Il12a and Il12b subunits, induces Il2ra to form high-affinity Il2 receptors on natural killer cells in response to mouse cytomegalovirus infection.
[Mus musculus] Nod1 and Nod2 synergize with Tlr4 in dendritic cells to increase IL12 production and enhance invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell activation, and are important regulators of the IFN gamma response by iNKT cells during S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes infections.
Entrez Gene
Summary This gene encodes a subunit of interleukin 12, a cytokine that acts on T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. Interleukin 12 is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of the 40 kD cytokine receptor like subunit encoded by this gene, and a 35 kD subunit encoded by IL12A. This cytokine is expressed by activated macrophages that serve as an essential inducer of Th1 cells development. This cytokine has been found to be important for sustaining a sufficient number of memory/effector Th1 cells to mediate long-term protection to an intracellular pathogen. Overexpression of this gene was observed in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting a role of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of the disease. The promoter polymorphism of this gene has been reported to be associated with the severity of atopic and non-atopic asthma in children. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Gene Information
Type Protein coding
Genomic Location Chromosome 5:159314783-159330887
Strand Reverse strand
Band q33.3
ENST00000231228 ENSP00000231228
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 35 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 19 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 36 [view]
Protein-Protein 17 [view]
Protein-DNA 19 [view]
Protein-RNA 0
Predicted by orthology
Total 19 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0004896 cytokine receptor activity
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005126 cytokine receptor binding
GO:0005143 interleukin-12 receptor binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008083 growth factor activity
GO:0042164 interleukin-12 alpha subunit binding
GO:0042802 identical protein binding
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity
GO:0045519 interleukin-23 receptor binding
GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity
Biological Process
GO:0001916 positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity
GO:0002230 positive regulation of defense response to virus by host
GO:0002323 natural killer cell activation involved in immune response
GO:0002827 positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response
GO:0002860 positive regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target
GO:0002862 negative regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus
GO:0007050 cell cycle arrest
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway
GO:0010224 response to UV-B
GO:0010535 positive regulation of activation of JAK2 kinase activity
GO:0016477 cell migration
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0019233 sensory perception of pain
GO:0019953 sexual reproduction
GO:0030101 natural killer cell activation
GO:0032693 negative regulation of interleukin-10 production
GO:0032700 negative regulation of interleukin-17 production
GO:0032725 positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production
GO:0032729 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production
GO:0032733 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production
GO:0032735 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production
GO:0032740 positive regulation of interleukin-17 production
GO:0032760 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production
GO:0032816 positive regulation of natural killer cell activation
GO:0032819 positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation
GO:0032946 positive regulation of mononuclear cell proliferation
GO:0034105 positive regulation of tissue remodeling
GO:0034393 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process
GO:0042035 regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process
GO:0042088 T-helper 1 type immune response
GO:0042093 T-helper cell differentiation
GO:0042095 interferon-gamma biosynthetic process
GO:0042102 positive regulation of T cell proliferation
GO:0042104 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation
GO:0042346 positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus
GO:0042510 regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat1 protein
GO:0042517 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 protein
GO:0042520 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat4 protein
GO:0042523 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein
GO:0042832 defense response to protozoan
GO:0043382 positive regulation of memory T cell differentiation
GO:0044130 negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host
GO:0045078 positive regulation of interferon-gamma biosynthetic process
GO:0045087 innate immune response (InnateDB)
GO:0045672 positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation
GO:0045785 positive regulation of cell adhesion
GO:0048662 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation
GO:0050671 positive regulation of lymphocyte proliferation
GO:0050729 positive regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0050829 defense response to Gram-negative bacterium
GO:0051135 positive regulation of NK T cell activation
GO:0051142 positive regulation of NK T cell proliferation
GO:0051607 defense response to virus
GO:0071222 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0071346 cellular response to interferon-gamma
GO:2000318 positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response
GO:2000330 positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment
Cellular Component
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0043514 interleukin-12 complex
GO:0070743 interleukin-23 complex
Mus musculus
Bos taurus
Gene ID
Gene Order
SSD Ortholog
Ortholog supports species divergence
Not yet available
SSD Ortholog
Ortholog supports species divergence
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway pathway
RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway pathway
Jak-STAT signaling pathway pathway
Type I diabetes mellitus pathway
Leishmaniasis pathway
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) pathway
African trypanosomiasis pathway
Toxoplasmosis pathway
Amoebiasis pathway
Allograft rejection pathway
GPCR signaling pathway
IL-23 signaling pathway
JAK STAT pathway and regulation pathway
IL-12 signaling pathway
No2-dependent il-12 pathway in nk cells [Biocarta view]
Il12 and stat4 dependent signaling pathway in th1 development [Biocarta view]
IL27-mediated signaling events
IL12-mediated signaling events
IL23-mediated signaling events
SwissProt P29460
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 3593
UniGene Hs.674
RefSeq NM_002187
OMIM 161561
EMBL AF180563 AF512686 AY008847 AY046592 AY046593 BC067498 BC067499 BC067500 BC067501 BC067502 BC074723 EF173865 M65272 M65290
GenPept AAA35695 AAA59938 AAD56386 AAG32620 AAH67498 AAH67499 AAH67500 AAH67501 AAH67502 AAH74723 AAL05890 AAL05891 AAM34792 ABM53138
RNA Seq Atlas 3593