Homo sapiens Protein: ADARB1
InnateDB Protein IDBP-583333.3
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol ADARB1
Protein Name adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1
Synonyms ADAR2; DRABA2; DRADA2; RED1;
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000436367
InnateDB Gene IDBG-5701 (ADARB1)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) referred to as A-to-I RNA editing. This may affect gene expression and function in a number of ways that include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. Can edit both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at specific sites (site-specific editing). Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer- associated protein (BLCAP), neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2 and GRIK2) and serotonin (HTR2C), GABA receptor (GABRA3) and potassium voltage-gated channel (KCNA1). Site- specific RNA editing of transcripts encoding these proteins results in amino acid substitutions which consequently alter their functional activities. Edits GRIA2 at both the Q/R and R/G sites efficiently but converts the adenosine in hotspot1 much less efficiently. Can exert a proviral effect towards human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and enhances its replication via both an editing-dependent and editing-independent mechanism. The former involves editing of adenosines in the 5'UTR while the latter occurs via suppression of EIF2AK2/PKR activation and function. Can inhibit cell proliferation and migration and can stimulate exocytosis. {ECO:0000269PubMed:18178553, ECO:0000269PubMed:19908260, ECO:0000269PubMed:21289159}.
Subcellular Localization Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Note=Shuttles between nucleoli and the nucleoplasm.
Disease Associations
Tissue Specificity Highly expressed in brain and heart and at lower levels in placenta. Fair expression in lung, liver and kidney. Detected in brain, heart, kidney, lung and liver (at protein level). Isoform 5 is high expressed in hippocampus and colon. Isoform 5 is expressed in pediatric astrocytomas and the protein has a decreased RNA-editing activity. The decrease in RNA editing correlates with the grade of malignancy of the tumors, with the high grade tumors showing lower editing is seen. {ECO:0000269PubMed:18178553, ECO:0000269PubMed:19156214, ECO:0000269PubMed:9149227}.
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 22 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
Experimentally validated
Total 22 [view]
Protein-Protein 22 [view]
Protein-DNA 0
Protein-RNA 0
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0003723 RNA binding
GO:0003725 double-stranded RNA binding
GO:0003726 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity
GO:0003729 mRNA binding
GO:0004000 adenosine deaminase activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding
GO:0046872 metal ion binding
Biological Process
GO:0006382 adenosine to inosine editing
GO:0006396 RNA processing
GO:0006397 mRNA processing
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0010467 gene expression
GO:0016553 base conversion or substitution editing
GO:0016556 mRNA modification
GO:0030336 negative regulation of cell migration
GO:0044387 negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation
GO:0045070 positive regulation of viral genome replication
GO:0045087 innate immune response
GO:0051607 defense response to virus
GO:0051726 regulation of cell cycle
Cellular Component
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm
GO:0005730 nucleolus
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR002466 Adenosine deaminase/editase
IPR008996 Cytokine, IL-1-like
IPR014720 Double-stranded RNA-binding domain
PFAM PF02137
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P78563
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P78563
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 104
UniGene Hs.674282
OMIM 601218
HPRD 06777
EMBL AB194370 AB194371 AB194372 AF001042 AF525422 AL133499 AL163301 AP001579 AY135659 BC065545 BX322560 CH471079 FJ169506 U76420 U76421 U76422 U82120 U82121 X99227 X99383
GenPept AAB58300 AAB61686 AAB61687 AAC51240 AAC51241 AAC51242 AAH65545 AAM83100 AAN10291 ACN49027 BAE16326 BAE16327 BAE16328 CAA67611 CAA67762 CAB90493 EAX09357 EAX09359 EAX09360