|Homo sapiens Gene: IL10|
|Last Modified||2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]|
|Gene Name||interleukin 10|
|Synonyms||CSIF; GVHDS; IL-10; IL10A; TGIF;|
|Useful resources||Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen|
IL10 expression is regulated in different immune cells has revealed some of the molecular mechanisms involved at the levels of signal transduction, epigenetics, transcription factor binding and gene activation.
IL10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that is crucial for down-regulating pro-inflammatory genes which are induced by Toll-like Receptor (TLR) signalling. It also plays a role in microRNA function, specifically its inhibitory effect on miR-155 expression in response to LPS.
IL10 is a pleiotropic cytokine released in many tissues that mediates anti-inflammatory effects. IL10 also has an immunomodulatory role by stimulating NKG2D ligand expression on macrophages, thereby rendering them susceptible to natural killer (NK) cell elimination.
IL10 contributes to antiviral innate immunity during acute infection by restricting activation-induced death in natural killer (NK) cells. Blockade of Il10 receptor during acute murine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection markedly reduced the accumulation of cytotoxic NK cells in the spleen and lung. (Demonstrated in murine model)
IL10 has opposing functions in anti-microbial responses in its capacity to mediate protective immunity against some organisms but increase susceptibility to other infections.
IL10-mediated suppression of natural killer/dendritic cell crosstalk leads to prolonged mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) persistence due to poor priming of MCMV-specific T cells. (Demonstrated in mouse)
IL10 induces MIR187 to limit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
MIR145 directly targets HDAC11 to promote IL10 expression in TLR4-triggered macrophages.
HIV-1 infection of macrophages modulates host responses to co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by attenuating IL10 responses thus contributing to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in HIV-1â??infected patients.
Secreted CCNA2 (CCN1) promotes anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 release from epithelial cells via integrin Î±VÎ²6-PKC, and this subsequently suppresses TNF, CXCL2 and neutrophil infiltration in the lungs.
MIR29A inhibits IL10-induced cytokine release by targeting JAK-STAT3 in monocytes during sepsis.
|InnateDB Annotation from Orthologs|
[Mus musculus] Il10 contributes to antiviral innate immunity during acute infection by restricting activation-induced death in natural killer (NK) cells. Blockade of Il10 receptor during acute murine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection markedly reduced the accumulation of cytotoxic NK cells in the spleen and lung.
[Mus musculus] Il10 has opposing functions in anti-microbial responses in its capacity to mediate protective immunity against some organisms but increase susceptibility to other infections.
[Mus musculus] Il10-mediated suppression of natural killer/dendritic cell crosstalk leads to prolonged mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) persistence due to poor priming of MCMV-specific T cells.
[Mus musculus] Retinoic acid treatment enhances Tlr2-dependent Il10 production from T cells and this, in turn, potentiates T regulatory cell generation without the need for activation of antigen presenting cells.
[Mus musculus] Intestinal macrophages that constitutively produce IL10, control excessive innate immune activation and prevent tissue damage after an acute bacterial infection.
The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine produced primarily by monocytes and to a lesser extent by lymphocytes. This cytokine has pleiotropic effects in immunoregulation and inflammation. It down-regulates the expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class II Ags, and costimulatory molecules on macrophages. It also enhances B cell survival, proliferation, and antibody production. This cytokine can block NF-kappa B activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the function of this cytokine as an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract. Mutations in this gene are associated with an increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and rheumatoid arthritis.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
|Genomic Location||Chromosome 1:206767602-206772494|
|Number of Interactions||
This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 23 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 14 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway
Jak-STAT signaling pathway pathway
T cell receptor signaling pathway pathway
Intestinal immune network for IgA production pathway
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) pathway
African trypanosomiasis pathway
Staphylococcus aureus infection pathway
Autoimmune thyroid disease pathway
Systemic lupus erythematosus pathway
Allograft rejection pathway
GPCR signaling pathway
IL-10 signaling pathway
JAK STAT pathway and regulation pathway
AP-1 transcription factor network
IL4-mediated signaling events
Regulation of nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling
|TrEMBL||Q6FGW4 Q6LBF4 Q71UZ1|
|UniProt Splice Variant|
|EMBL||AF043333 AF418271 AY029171 BC104252 BC104253 CH471100 CR541993 DQ217938 GQ405199 M57627 U16720 X78437|
|GenPept||AAA63207 AAA80104 AAC03534 AAI04253 AAI04254 AAK38162 AAL06594 ABB01008 ACV30066 CAA55201 CAG46790 EAW93524|
|RNA Seq Atlas||3586|